The guiding mission of all historians is to uncover the truth in history exactly as it once was. Unfortunately, the ‘Teacher of Life’ is often misused for the purpose of developing deliberately tailored theories for ideological or political purposes. Facts are selected or simply erased to the benefit of one person or another. Nonsensical narrative accumulated over many years becomes consolidated according to Josef Goebbels’ famous rule: ‘A lie told a hundred times becomes a truth.’ Historians must constantly use credible evidence to expose the clumsy fabrications of others whom we are ashamed to refer to as ‘colleagues’. Although ‘silence is golden’ and ‘words are silver’, in this case silver is preferable.
Macedonian nationalism is a treacherous political doctrine imposed by Serbian chauvinists, and subsequently further developed by the Comintern to create a new political nation by dint of stealing history and the creation of its own state at the expense of the Bulgarian cause. Marshal Tito, ‘the Father of the Nation’, has long since passed away, but his poisonous fruit is long lasting. He ripped away an essential part of the might of the Bulgarian nation, turning it against its brothers and sisters, sometimes to a pathological extent. This is tantamount to hating oneself, since we are of the same blood, but with different historical memories. Ideological and political correctness has inflicted many damages over the last 75 years, especially when the Macedonian Question is considered in the context of the over accentuated ‘international situation’. There remains much research and clarification to do, in order to overcome the accumulated mutual mistrust and to make it clear that we are in fact arguing with Skopje about the same events and heroes. Since we are one artificially divided whole with deep roots in history.
The vocation of Bulgarian historians is to refute the widespread falsifications which seek to undermine the proven truth and erase the sacred pillars of Bulgarian history and national spirit in Macedonia, while appropriating its glorious achievements over the centuries. When one enters the church of the Monastery of St Naum at Lake Ohrid, one’s eyes are immediately caught by the image of St Knyaz [Prince] Boris I the Baptist with deeply gouged eyes. The tour guide’s awkward explanation is that the locals are in the habit of taking something as an omen of ‘good health’, but unlike the neighbouring images, there has been no attempt at restoration. Macedonian nationalists first gouge out eyes to blind their victims as to the truth of history. We offer historical evidence to restore the sight of the many misguided victims of Macedonian nationalism.
In 1861, the remarkable collection of the Miladinov brothers entitled Bulgarian Folk Songs, appeared in Zagreb. It is published today in Skopje as Macedonian Folk Songs. Such impertinence has no bound and embodies the blatancy of Macedonian nationalism in the suppression of all moral standards of conduct. It is true that the collection predominantly contains songs from Macedonia, but also from Thrace and Moesia. Thus altering the defining first word of the title is a deliberate act which does not truly reflect the content of the collection. It should also be noted that there was no Bulgarian Exarchate at the time. According to the forgers of Skopje, it was this Exarchate which supposedly forced ‘Bulgarianism’ on the Macedonians through schools and chitalishta [community cultural centres].
Macedonian nationalists claim that if a nation exists, it must have a history that extends back as far as possible. In fact, the ‘Macedonian nation’ was created after the emergence of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 1945 and does not extend back to the Middle Ages or Antiquity. It needed, therefore, to pilfer as much of Bulgarian history as possible, along with the forced separation of the south-western lands. Fraud thus became a professional skill rewarded with titles and privileges. The Institute itself in Skopje is referred to as the ‘Institute of National History’. There was once such institute in the German Democratic Republic, inferring profound suspicions about the name itself.
Skopje seems occasionally inclined to cooperate, but as a ‘condition sine qua non’ they demand agreement on the ‘division’ of the rich history in which there will be ‘something’ for everyone. For example, the Ilinden Uprising should belong to the ‘Macedonians’, so that they might have a ‘national holiday’, while for the Bulgarians the Preobrazhenie Uprising is sufficient. The Macedonian-Adrianoplitan Volunteer Corps during the Balkan Wars also has to be divided. It is said to have involved 10,000 ‘Macedonians’ born west of the River Mesta and 4,000 Bulgarians born east of the Macedonian-Thrace border river. Macedonia is a ‘land of heroes’, so there will be plenty of them for both sides. Gotse Delchev and Yane Sandanski are ‘Macedonians’, while Todor Alexandrov and Ivan Mihaylov are Bulgarians, although they have recently also usurped Alexandrov. Of course, we cannot allow such disgraceful haggling of the type of ‘one for me, one for you’. History is not an item for sale on the stalls of an oriental market. Gotse Delchev fought for ‘the Common Bulgarian Fatherland’ while in Skopje it is referred to as a ‘bastion of Macedonian nationalism’!
The integral nature of Bulgarian history in its entirety has been recognized by chroniclers and travellers, statesmen and generals, clerics and scholars, while in Skopje they are not interested in the reliability of the sources. The city centre is filled with kitsch monuments and sculptures illustrating the Macedonain nationalists’ uncertainty about their own claims. ‘Prominent Macedonian publicist and diplomat’, Simeon Radev, referred to Macedonia as ‘the Cradle of the Bulgarian Revival’, but who at the River Vardar would read that? Andrey Lyapchev, his countryman from Resen, is still not honoured with a monument. Nevertheless, he spoke of the disastrous signing of the Thessalonica Armistice on September 29, 1918 and the sole hope for his misappropriated homeland: ‘As long as there is a free Bulgarian state – there will be hope for an enslaved Macedonia!’
Today, one in three citizens of the Republic of Bulgaria has his roots among the refugees from Macedonia, Eastern and Western Thrace, Bulgarian Pomoravie [the Morava Valley] and Northern Dobrudzha regions. This is the living bond of spiritual unification after the failure of territorial national unity which no one is able to break. Modern genetic research has confirmed that ‘blood is thicker than water’. The issue, however, lies with the blurred consciousness of the Macedonian nationalism – something which has been eroded over the past 75 years and can no longer easily distinguish historical truth in the distorted mirror of Macedonianism. A return to the logical truth requires perseverance and patience, as well as books of evidential provenance such as this one which I highly recommend to curious readers. The half-truths or blatant lies of the Macedonian nationalists cannot provide the whole truth, no matter how hard they try to corrupt it.
The disputes surrounding the Treaty of Good Neighbourliness with the Republic of North Macedonia have given rise to a ‘compromise’ proposal: ‘You recognise the Macedonian nation and we will recognise its Bulgarian past.’ A country is recognized, but it takes centuries for a nation to be established and consolidated. We would not want to prevent anyone who wishes to do so from ascribing themselves with the epithet ‘Macedonian’, but we draw the line at forcing our ancestors to roll over in their graves. Besides, what kind of ‘nation’ is this with someone else’s history? The entire notion proposed by Skopje’s politicised historians is based on the rotten foundation of false Macedonian nationalism. We do not, however, have the moral right to retreat under their pressure. We are also considering the vivid memory of countless Macedonian Bulgarians who sacrificed themselves in order to ‘come together under a shared roof of state’. The controversial issues relating to a ‘shared’ history are not a matter for discussion through diplomatic negotiations, but in academic discussions at a round table.
First of all, we need to clarify ‘what is shared history’, because until the Balkan Wars in 1912/13 the Slavic population in Vardar Macedonia had Bulgarian history. Some years ago, a Skopje historian complained to me that history for the Bulgarians is our ‘mother’, while for the Macedonians it is their ‘stepmother’, and then suggested we swap places. I looked upon him with pity and reassured him by saying that there was nothing we could do about that now, but that we rather need to reveal the vagaries of our history, to comprehend the grave consequences of them, and only then endeavour to overcome our substantial differences. However, my interlocutor began once again to read history backwards – from Marshal Tito to Tsar Samuil, thus disrupting the linear flow of time.
In recent history, Macedonia has been the scene of bloody uprisings and wars, persecutions and refugees seeking solace in refugee migrations to free Bulgaria. The Bulgarians who remained in their native lands were deprived of churches and schools, and forced to confess themselves as ‘Orthodox Serbs’. In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia resistance to violent Serbianisation was both continuous and persistent until the moment of the enthusiastic reception of Bulgarian troops in the spring of 1941. Tito, however, applied a note of treachery: ‘Well, you are not Serbs, but nor are you Bulgarians – you are Macedonians!’ At the same time, the government of the Fatherland Front in Bulgaria was forced to reject the notion of Macedonian Bulgarians and even allowed a process of ‘Macedonianization’ in Pirin Macedonia. Therefore to some extent, one can understand the acceptance of Macedonian nationalism as a protection against the mass extermination of Bulgarian history and spirit after the Second World War. However, momentum has been continuing to build up over the past 30 years since the breakup of Yugoslavia without any sign of decreasing. Let us hope that we will soon be able to sit opposite people who are suitable and capable of engaging in an academic discussion.
Bulgarian historiography has multilaterally examined the Macedonian question, regardless of political changes, since it persists in being both a hot and complicated issue. The authors of this interesting book are specialists in different historical eras, but they are united by the history of the Macedonian Bulgarians. Each one has given their point of view and defended it with credible evidence. This is our main advantage over the historians in Skopje who, for example, read Ottoman Turkish documents relating to the persecution of ‘Bulgarian cheta’ [companies] of insurgents, but present them as ‘Macedonian’. It is not a normal occurrence for someone to think one thing, speak of another and write about something completely different – that is to indulge in falsification in the name of a modern ‘Macedonian identity’.
When you read this book, you will discover, or rediscover, that the Bulgarians today are separated by historical circumstances, and that they come from the shared past of their ancestors. Any malicious attempts to ‘conform’ history to ‘political realities’ shatter into fragments on the granite rock of historical truth. The city museum of Bitola displays the inscription of Tsar Yoan Vladislav – ‘Ruler of Bulgaria’: ‘This fortress was built for refuge and salvation, and for the lives of the Bulgarians.’ By some miracle this monument survived the vicissitudes of both Serboslavia and Titoslavia. Fortunately, stone does not burn like paper, and if necessary, it can be erected as a monument to mark the triumph of truth in history.
I. Foreword Georgi Markov, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences / 9
II. The early history of South-East Europe Assoc Prof Kalin Stoev / 15
III. Was there a Macedonia Thema in the vicinity of Adrianople in Thrace? Dr Stefan Peykov / 38
IV. Macedonia – the first Bulgarian land south of the Danube Assoc Prof Petar Goliyski / 41
V. Macedonia during the Bulgarian Middle Ages Prof Plamen Pavlov / 75
VI. Characteristics of the anthropogenetic origin of the Bulgarian people Prof Draga Toncheva, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Prof Angel Galabov, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Desislava Nesheva, PhD / 127
VII. Bulgaria and the beginning of Slavic literature and culture Prof Elka Mircheva, Prof Mariyana Tsibranska-Kostova, Assoc Prof Vanya Micheva / 149
VIII. Years of trial Prof Hristo Matanov / 185
IX. The Bulgarian Exarchate and the formation of the Church in Macedonia Assoc Prof Hristo Temelski / 205
X. Thrace and Macedonia on a map from the library of the Bulgarian Exarchate Dr Stefan Peykov, Major Docho Nikolov / 247
XI. Traditional songs and customs. Evidence from ethnography and folklore Assoc Prof Veselka Toncheva / 253
XII. Apostles of the Bulgarian Revival in Macedonia Prof Kiril Topalov / 275
XIII. Participation of Bulgarians from Macedonia in the national liberation struggles in the 19th century Prof Plamen Mitev / 311
XIV. The National Liberation Movement of Macedonian Bulgarians 1878 – 1912 Slavi Slavov, PhD; Georgi N. Georgiev, PhD / 345
XV. The Bulgarians in Vardar Macedonia in the Testimonies of Foreign Authors Assoc Prof Stoyan Germanov, Elena Bugarcheva / 379
XVI. Refugees from Macedonia in the socio-political life of Bulgaria (1878 – 1989) Stoyan Nikolov, PhD / 435
XVII. The all-Bulgarian émigré patriotic front in the United States, Canada and Australia Prof Trendafil Mitev / 459
XVIII. Historical facts in the textbooks of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia Assoc Prof Violeta Stoycheva, Assoc Prof Rumyana Marinova-Christidi, Teodora Nikolova / 493
XIX. Contributors to Part One / 512
Academic scientist: Georgi Markov, Regular Member of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Authors: Angel Galabov, Regular Member of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Assoc Prof Vanya Micheva; Assoc Prof Veselka Toncheva; Assoc Prof Violeta Stoycheva; Georgi N. Georgiev, PhD; Georgi Markov, Regular Member of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Desislava Nesheva, PhD; Major Docho Nikolov; Draga Toncheva, Regular Member of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Elena Bugarcheva; Prof Elka Mircheva, Assoc Prof Kalin Stoev; Prof Kiril Topalov; Prof Mariana Tsibranska-Kostova; Assoc Prof Petar Goliyski; Prof Plamen Mitev; Prof Plamen Pavlov; Assoc Prof Rumyana Marinova-Christidi; Slavi Slavov, PhD; Dr Stefan Peykov; Assoc Prof Stoyan Germanov; Stoyan Nikolov, PhD; Teodora Nikolova; Prof Trendafil Mitev; Prof Hristo Matanov; Assoc Prof Hristo Temelski
Academic advisers: Assoc Prof Dimitar V. Dimitrov, Assoc Prof Georgi N. Nikolov, Prof Nadia Manolova-Nikolova
Reviewers: Prof Iliya Todev, Prof Lyudmil Spasov, Prof Petar Angelov
Book production manager: Dimitar M. Dimitrov
Compiled by: Dimitar M. Dimitrov
Edited by: Adriana Momchilova
Translated by: Dr David Mossop
Graphic design: Ralitsa Karapanteva
Book cover artist: Petar Dobrev
Printed by: Multiprint Ltd
Prof Angel Galabov, MD, DSc, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, is Professor of Virology at Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. He initiated the first chain of symposia on antiviral substances in Europe (1976) and the Balkan Society of Microbiology (1998) and was its first president. He is Chairman of the Bulgarian Society of Microbiology at the Bulgarian Scientists’ Union and a member of the International Organization for Antiviral Research. He is the author of 318 publications and 39 patents. Lecturer at several Bulgarian universities.
Assoc Prof Vanya Micheva, PhD, is Research Secretary of Section at the Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. She is a specialist in Old Bulgarian language and history of the Bulgarian language, historical syntax, historical lexicology and linguoculturology. Researcher of medieval Bulgarian written monuments. She is the co-author of the Old Bulgarian Dictionary (Старобългарски речник) and Dictionary of the Bulgarian Literary Language on a National Basis from the 17th century (Речник на книжовния български език на народна основа от ХVII в.) She is also the author of three monographs, a teaching dictionary, teaching aids and numerous articles in Bulgarian and foreign journals and collections. She has published papers in dozens of academic forums in Bulgaria and abroad.
Assoc Prof Veselka Toncheva is Doctor of Ethnomusicology and Associate Professor in the Ethnomusicology and Ethnochoreology Section at the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. She is the author of the research monographs Folklorist Nikolay Kaufman (Фолклористът Николай Кауфман); Bulgarians from Golo Bardo, Albania – p. I, III (compiler of p. II) (Българите от Голо Бърдо, Албания – ч. I, III (съставител на ч. II), The Unknown Góra (Непознатата Гòра). She has also written dozens of scenarios for ethnographic documentaries. She has lectured at the University of Plovdiv and Sofia, as well as at the universities in Vienna, Rome, Belgrade and Zagreb.
Assoc Prof Violeta Stoycheva, PhD, is a lecturer at the Department of New and Most Recent History of Bulgaria at the Historical Faculty of Sts Cyril and Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo. Her scientific interests are in the field of history teaching methodology, didactic problems of history, heritage pedagogy, gender education, civic education, and oral history, inter alia. She is the author and co-author of textbooks on history and civilizations for secondary schools and teaching aids for teachers.
Georgi N. Georgiev, PhD, Chief Assistant Professor, works at the Institute of Historical Studies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, in the History of the Bulgarian National Question Section. His research interests include the Macedonian question, liberation movement of Macedonian Bulgarians, international relations in the Balkans after 1878, inter alia. He is the author of two monographs, The Macedonian-Adrianople Movement in the Kyustendil District (1895 – 1903) (Македоно-одринското движение в Кюстендилски окръг (1895 – 1903)) and Bulgarian-Albanian Political Relations (1908–1915) (Българо-албански политически отношения (1908 – 1915)) and of dozens of studies and articles. He is the compiler and research editor of a number of documentaries, books, and periodicals.
Prof Georgi Markov, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, DSc, Director of the Institute of Historical Studies (1993 – 2013), lecturer at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski, the Military Academy, New Bulgarian University, and others. He is a specialist in the contemporary history of Bulgaria and the Balkans, international relations and foreign policy in the 20th century. He is also the author of 12 monographs, including Bulgarian-German relations 1931–1939 (Българогерманските отношения 1931 – 1939), The Great War and the Bulgarian Guard between Central Europe and the Orient 1916 – 1919 (Голямата война и българската стража между Средна Европа и Ориента 1916 – 1919), more than 60 studies and articles, numerous research papers, and reviews, inter alia.
Desislava Nesheva, PhD, is a geneticist at the Department of Medical Genetics at the Medical University, Sofia. She specialized in anthropogenetics at the University of Florence in Italy. She has participated in research on paleogenetics, anthropogenetics, oncological diseases, and congenital malformations, inter alia. Her dissertation was on Characterisation of the Genetic Roots in the Bulgarian Lands. Author of 37 publications in foreign and Bulgarian scientific journals. Lecturer in General Genetics at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. She has participated in scientific congresses on human genetics.
Major Eng Docho Nikolov, PhD, is an officer at the Military Geographic Centre. He defended his dissertation at the G. S. Rakovski Military Academy on Topographical Provision of the Bulgarian Army for the Period 1878 – 1945. He is a member of the Traditsia National Society for Military Historical Reconstruction, Brothers in Arms Club for Reconstructions in Military History, and others. He is the author of books and publications related to the study of the history of the regiment, the Military Geographic Service, Bulgarian military topography and maps.
Prof Draga Toncheva, MD, DSc, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, is the long-serving Head of the Department of Medical Genetics at the Medical University, Sofia. Her research area spreads on human genome disorders in monogenic and polygenic genetic diseases. Her publications on population genomics are internationally known. She has authored more than 300 articles, and has been cited more than 16,000 times. Chief Coordinator of the Expert Council on Medical Genetics at the Ministry of Health, Chairman of the Bulgarian Society of Genetics and Genomics and member of international organizations.
Elena Bugarcheva graduated in history in Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. She worked at the Institute for Historical Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the State Archives Agency. She participated in the compilation of several collections from the Archives Speak series (Архивите говорят): Bulgarian National Bank (Българска народна банка) – Volume 7, The Bulgarians from the Western Outskirts 1878 – 1975 (Българите от Западните покрайнини 1878 – 1975) – Volume 35, and The Goryani (Горяните) – Volume 64, and the memoirs of Esto Vezenkov – Part of the truth for the whole. Memories of the journalist (Частица от истината за цялото. Спомени на журналиста). She has authored articles on the national liberation movement of the Bulgarians from Macedonia and the Western outskirts.
Prof Elka Mircheva, PhD, Chair of the Research Council at the Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Specialist in Old Bulgarian language and history of the Bulgarian language, textology and historical lexicology. She researches into medieval Bulgarian written monuments. Co-author and research secretary of the Old Bulgarian Dictionary (Старобългарски речник). Author of four monographs and numerous articles published in Bulgarian and foreign journals and collections. Lecturer in Old Bulgarian Language and History of the Bulgarian Language at Plovdiv University of Paisiy Hilendarski. She has presented her papers in dozens of academic forums in Bulgaria and abroad.
Assoc Prof Kalin Stoev, PhD, is a historian, lecturer at the University of Library Studies and Information Technologies. He graduated from the National High School of Ancient Languages and Culture, as well as the Faculty of History of Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski, and defended his doctorate at the Institute of Balkan Studies and Centre of Thracology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. He is the author of two monographs, as well as articles and studies concerned with the history of the Roman Empire, the history and society of the Roman Moesia provinces, Roman prosopography, Thracology and Latin epigraphy.
Prof Kiril Topalov, DSc, has taught Bulgarian literature at Sofia University of St Kiment Ohridski and in other Bulgarian and foreign universities. Researcher of the Bulgarian Revival Period literature. Member of the World Hellenistic Academy of Arcadia. He was director of the National Library, ambassador to Athens, the Vatican and the Order of Malta. Author of numerous scientific articles, studies and books, including Problems of Bulgarian Revival Literature (Проблеми на българската възрожденска литература); Revivalists (Възрожденци); Hristo Botev. Poetry, Prose (Христо Ботев. Поезия, проза), etc. Fiction writer, playwright and translator, member of PEN.
Prof Mariana Tsibranska-Kostova, DSc – Head of Section at the Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Research interests: Old Bulgarian language, textology and language of Slavic written monuments, Slavic legal texts, historical lexicology and lexicography. Author of seven monographs and numerous articles and studies published in Bulgarian, English, French, Romanian and Russian languages. Lecturer in Old Bulgarian Language and History of the Bulgarian Language at Plovdiv University of Paisiy Hilendarski. Participant in research forums in the USA, France, Poland, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Croatia, and other counties.
Assoc Prof Dr Petar Goliyski defended his doctorate on Onomastic and Lexical Aspects of the Armenian Ethnic Presence in the Bulgarian Lands during the Middle Ages. Lecturer at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski, Head of Armenian and Caucasian Studies. He is the author of four monographs, including Bulgarians in the Caucasus and Armenia (2nd – 10th century) (Българите в Кавказ и Армения (ІІ – Х век) (2006), Armenia and the Iranian World 1st–5th century (Армения и иранският свят І – V век) (habilitation work), and The Settlement of Bulgarians on the Balkan Peninsula 4th – 5th century. Volume I – II (Заселването на българите на Балканския полуостров IV – VII век) (2014), as well as a number of studies, research and documentary articles.
Prof Plamen Mitev, PhD, is a lecturer in the Bulgarian Revival at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. Research interests: economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire 18th – 19th centuries; Bulgarian Revival – the Bulgarian political question (centres, activists, programmes, propaganda, Bulgarians and the Eastern Question), foreign propaganda in the Balkans. Author, co-author and compiler of books, textbooks and teaching aids, as well as of numerous publications in research collections. Member of the Bulgarian Society for the Study of the 18th Century and the Association of Experts in Bulgarian Studies.
Prof Plamen Pavlov, PhD, is a lecturer in the history of Byzantium and medieval history of the Balkan peoples (4th–15th centuries) at the Veliko Tarnovo University of Sts Cyril and Methodius. Guest professor at Plovdiv University of Paisiy Hilendarski, Shumen University of Bishop Konstantin Preslavsky, and Varna Free University of Chernorizets Hrabar. He is the author of over 350 books, articles and studies, as well as of opinion journalism and poetry. Since 2003 he has been the author and presenter in the TV history and culture show, Lessons in Bulgaria. He is chairman of the Vasil Levski Foundation and Krag Buditel Association, editor-in-chief of Buditel Journal.
Assoc Prof Rumyana Marinova-Christidi, PhD, is Head of Hebraic Studies at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. Her scientific interests are in the field of contemporary Bulgarian history, Jewish studies, the Holocaust, education and ideology, cultural diplomacy and Bulgarian-Greek relations from the end of Second World War to modern times. Author of monographs and articles published in Bulgaria and abroad.
Slavi Slavov, PhD – Chief Assistant Professor at the Institute of Historical Studies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Academic interests in the field of the national liberation movement of Macedonian and Thracian Bulgarians and the wars for national unification 1912 – 1918. Author of the monographs IMARO from Ilinden to the Balkan War (1903 – 1912) (ВМОРО от Илинден до Балканската война (1903 – 1912)), IMARO between Hurriyet fanfares and cannon roar (1908 – 1912) (ВМОРО между фанфарите на Хуриета и грохота на оръдията (1908 – 1912), and of more than 50 scientific studies and articles.
Dr Stefan Peykov – founder and first president of the UNESCO National Club for Scientific Expeditions (1970 – 1974). He defended his PhD thesis on Building a Comprehensive Territorial Research Programme at the Centre for Scientific Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Head of the ECOPAN Research Centre – Malko Tarnovo (1984 – 2021). Founder of the Geopan International Trade and Cultural Centre, Burgas, and co-founder of the Bulgarian Cartographic Association. His research interests are in the field of science studies and research into interdisciplinary interaction in the project organization of research and culture.
Assoc Prof Stoyan Germanov graduated in history at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. His research interests are related to the Bulgarian national liberation movement after the Berlin Congress, the policy of the Great Powers on the Macedonian Question and others. He has specialized in London, Moscow and St Petersburg. He is the author of more than 100 studies, articles, reviews and four monographs, including The Russian Public and the Revolutionary Movement in Macedonia (Руската общественост и революционното движение в Македония) and The Macedonian Question 1944 – 1989 (Македонският въпрос 1944 – 1989). He has participated in national and international scientific congresses, symposia and round tables. Since 1991 he has been an associate and scientific secretary of the restored Macedonian Scientific Institute.
Stoyan Nikolov, PhD, was born in 1978 in Lovech. A graduate of the Faculty of History of Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. His first scientific publication, Unknown documents about the fate of Bulgarian prisoners of war in Serbia and Greece after the First World War (Неизвестни документи за съдбата на българските военнопленници в Сърбия и Гърция след Първата световна война) was in 2004. Since 2013 he has been a Senior Assistant at the National Museum of Military History, and since 2019 – at the Military Academy of G . S. Rakovski. His research interests are in the field of military history and international law. Editor-in-Chief of the Military Journal and scientific consultant of the National Geographic Bulgaria magazine.
Teodora Nikolova graduated from the History Faculty of the University of Veliko Tarnovo of Sts Cyril and Methodius in 1994. She has for many years worked as a teacher. She is a member of the Association of History Teachers in Bulgaria and EUROCLIO – European Association of History Teachers. She has a 3rd professional qualification degree. She writes about her pedagogical practice in Dialogue in History Journal and in EUROCLIO.
Prof Trendafil Mitev, DSc is a lecturer at the University of National and World Economy, a specialist in new Bulgarian history. His main research works concern the history of Bulgarian emigration to the New World (USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand), Bulgarian military history, ideology and political practice of social democracy. He is the author of 21 research monographs, 160 research studies and numerous publications in the media. He has carried out research work in Russia, USA, Poland, Czechoslovakia and other countries. His works are published in Russian, English, Polish and Czech.
Prof Hristo Matanov, DSc is a lecturer at Sofia University of Kliment Ohridski, a research fellow at the Institute for Balkan Studies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Prof. Ivan Duychev Centre for Slavo-Byzantine Studies. He researches into the history of Byzantium and the Balkan peoples. He has carried out specialised research in Greece, USA and Germany. He is the author of monographs and historical writings, including The Principality of Dragashi. Concerning the history of Eastern and Northeastern Macedonia in the pre-Ottoman Era (Княжеството на Драгаши. Към историята на Източна и Североизточна Македония в доосманската епоха), the Medieval Balkans (Средновековните Балкани), the Sunset of Medieval Bulgaria (Залезът на средновековна България), textbooks, as well as numerous articles published in Bulgaria and abroad.
Assoc Prof Dr Hristo Temelski is a historian, researcher of Bulgarian church history, longtime director of the Church History and Archives Institute of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Author and compiler of over 35 books, over 600 articles and studies in the field of Bulgarian church history. Monographs: From Church History (Из църковното ни минало), Volumes 1 and 2, Exarch Yosif I (Екзарх Йосиф I), The Church of St Nikolay Novi Sofiyski (Храмът Св. Николай Нови Софийски), The Bulgarian Exarchate. 150th anniversary of its creation (Българската екзархия. 150 години от учредяването ѝ), inter alia.
Prof Iliya Todev, DSc, is a former director of the Institute of Historical Studies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, currently editor-inchief of the Historical Review journal. His main research interests are spreading chronologically in the 19th century and mainly cover Bulgaria and the Balkans. Most important publications: Bulgarian National Movement in Thrace 1800 – 1878 (Българското национално движение в Тракия 1800 – 1878); Dr Stoyan Chomakov (1819 – 1893). Life, work, descendants (Д-р Стоян Чомаков (1819 – 1893). Живот, дело, потомци); Bulgarian National Revolutionary Movement (1853 – 1878) (Българско националреволюционно движение (1853 – 1878); Non-traditional variations on a traditional theme (Нетрадиционни вариации на традиционна тема); Batak 1876 – myth or history? Topical texts on the Bulgarian Revival (Батак 1876 – мит или история? Актуални текстове по Българско възраждане); Man is a historical animal. Reflections and self-reflections (Човекът е историческо животно. Рефлексии и саморефлексии); Batak in the April Uprising – and in the Bulgarian memory (Батак в Априлското въстание – и в българската памет); Dr Stoyan Chomakov or ‘Small Eastern Question’ (Д-р Стоян Чомаков или „Малък Източен въпрос“).
Prof Lyudmil Spasov, DSc, graduated in History at the University of Veliko Tarnovo of Sts Cyril and Methodius. Lecturer in New and Modern History of Bulgaria at Veliko Tarnovo University, Technical University, Sofia, Institute of Military History and Paisiy Hilendarski University of Plovdiv. He is the author of more than 130 studies and articles on the problems of Bulgarian, Russian and Balkan modern history, including the monographs Bulgaria, the Great Powers and the Balkan States (1933 – 1939) (България, Великите сили и балканските държави (1933 – 1939)), Bulgarian History. A short guide. P. II and III (Българска история. Кратък справочник. Ч. ІІ и ІІІ), Problems of the new Bulgarian history. P. I and III (Проблеми на новата българска история. Ч. І и ІІІ), etc.
Prof Petar Angelov, DSc, graduated in History at Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski. His main research interests are related to the medieval history of Bulgaria and the Balkans. He lectures in Sofia University of St Kliment Ohridski and Plovdiv University of Paisiy Hilendarski. He has carried out reserach in Rome (1977), Thessalonica (1979), London (1981), Washington (1983 – 1984), Munich (1991), Berlin (1996). He is the author of the monographs: Medieval Bulgarian Diplomacy (Средновековната българска дипломация) (2011), Bulgaria and the Bulgarians in the notions of the Byzantines (България и българите в представите на византийците) (2006), Foreign Peoples in Notions of the Medieval Bulgarian (Чуждите народи в представите на средновековния българин) (2013), Medieval Bulgaria and its Neighbours (Средновековна България и нейните съседи) (2017), Bulgarian Medieval Age (Българско средновековие) (2020), among others.
Adriana Momchilova is a graduate of St Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, MA in English Philology and Bulgarian Philology. Specialized in translation and editorial work. Translator of more than 50 books, journals and textbooks in history and culture, international relations, political science, fiction, marketing and management. Expert in bilingual editions and manuscript-to-print process. Author of summaries, articles, promotional texts.
Dr David Mossop, lecturer and translator from Bulgarian, Russian and French into English. He has taught at Bristol University, St Petersburg Polytechnic University, New Bulgarian University and Sofia University. Extensive experience in translating fiction and historical literature from Bulgarian and Russian to English. He has also worked as a consultant in the state administration in Bulgaria on pre-accession projects to the EU.
The Abadzhievs, Angel Simeonov, Anna and Yuri Sabev, Anna Dimitrova, Prof Atanas Shterev, Boris Dimitrov, Boris Vlahov, Prof Valeri Stefanov, Prof Valeria Fol, Vasil Kalev, Vasko Shunin, Veselin Koshev, Violeta Dimitrova, Vladimir Dokov, Vladimir Iliev, Vladimir Tashkov, Prof Georgi Kostov, Georgi Lichev, Georgi Paskov, Gergana Tashkova, Dayan Tachev, Delyan Nikolov, Prof Dimitar Kislyakov, Prof Dimitar Nazarski, Dimitar Tomov, Donka Ivanova, Prof Evgenia Dimitrova, Eng. Emil Terziev, Prof Ivan Gavrilov; Ivan Granitski, Corresponding Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Ivan Dimov, Dr Ivan Zaykov, Dr Ivan Kolchakov, Ivan Penchev, Ivo Georgiev, Dr Yordan Kolev, Kiril Papadopulos, Eng. Kostadin Dikliev, Krisy and Mihail Belchev, Eng. Krum Pavlov, Lyubka Kachakova, Milen Boychev, Mihail Vasilev, Mihail Dimitrov, Dr Nedyalko Kalachev, Nikola Grigorov, Prof Ognyan Gerdzhikov, Svetla Dichevska, Svetlana Todorova, Eng. Simeon Ilinski, Eng. Stanislava Bakardzhieva, Stoyan Raychevski, Prof Stoyanka Kenderova; Hristo Grigorov, Regular Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sceinces; D-r Hristo Mazneykov, owner of St Sofia General Hospital; Hristo Meranzov, Hristo Pehlivanov, Tsvetelina Borislavova, and Yani Ignatov.
Actualno.com, Atanas Burov Foundation, Blik-99 Ltd, Bolit ET – Nikolay Zahariev, Associate Professor Borislav Velikov – Montana Foundation, Bulgari Foundation, Bulgarian Memory Foundation, Bulgarian Memory – Dinevi Brothers Foundation, Veritas Association, Doctor Dimitar Shterev Foundation, Dragoman-EL Ltd, the Arc of Plovdiv Association, SKL Service ltd, SVS Co Ltd, Intercomplex Ltd, History Club Kozloduy NPP Ltd, Led Expert Ltd, LogiSoft Ltd, Macedonia Foundation, Marel-BG Ltd, Mercedes Service Ltd, Multiprint Ltd, Nasledstvoto na Nashite Predtsi Foundation, National Museum of Military History, OZK-Insurance JSC, Rotary Club Sofia – Vitosha, Usta Kolyu Ficheto Association, and Helios Power JSC.
We also thank all those who cooperated and supported us and wished anonymity!
Sincere gratitude to all!
By means of the international book exchange of the National Library of Sts Cyril and Methodius the book “Bulgaria and Macedonia. History and Politics. Part One” will be sent to the following institutions:
Дейвид Мосъп бе удостоен със специалната награда за изключително високи постижения в областта на превода от Съюза на преводачите в България за превода му от български на английски език на книгата „България и Македония. История и политика. Първа част“.
Title: “Bulgaria and Macedonia. History and Politics. Part One”
Authors: panel of authors
Publisher: TANGRA Publishing House
Co-publishers: Institute for Historical Studies – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Macedonian Research Institute
Publication year: 2022
Edition: illustrated, deluxe, full-color edition
Format: 16 / 70 / 100
Dimensions: 16.5 x 24 cm
Print length: 520 pages
Weight: 1.325 kg
Bulgaria and Macedonia. History and Politics. Part One